KOINOS is based on Action Research (A-R), given that it is a methodology geared towards educational practice and used by teachers and other educational and social players to improve both their practice and their understanding of the various social situations that are created in this practice. From this perspective, A-R aims principally to offer information that is used as a guide for taking decisions in processes for change and improvement. This methodology is mainly focused on the creation of knowledge on practice through a systematic process of "reflection in action" and "reflection on action" that is also known as a spiral of change.
We concur with John Elliott (1991: 69) whereby Action Research could be defined as "the study of a social situation with a view to improving the quality of action within it". We therefore regard A-R as providing us with a suitable introspective-inquiry framework for reflecting on and understanding how European educational institutions can include, without necessarily adopting as their own, the plurilingual literacy practices typical of children, for the purposes of building school-based knowledge and developing 21st-century skills, and, to that end, promoting plurilingual intercultural education to boost and enable positive community life and social cohesion among students and their families, bringing about more involved, critical and responsible citizens.